Tag Archives: Plato

Thomas Hobbes and John Locke as thinkers about a pre-political state of nature

From the seventeen and eighteen century, the concept of a state of nature became popular and controversial between political thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes and John Locke because in most cases it raised freedom and equality as a natural right to all man.  Even this, there is the debate around those thinkers and the ways their conceptions changed the overcoming political theories. This essay will Compare and contrast Thomas Hobbes and John Locke as thinkers about a pre-political state of nature

Thomas Hobbes political philosophy, which comes to full fruitition in Leviathan it simply change the way of political reasoning. Because he rejected as inadequate the fundamental assumption of ancient classical theorizing that in the polis or republic man found his natural fulfillment, and that civil freedom was to be defined as the privilege of the citizen who participated in rule.[1]  ‘With extraordinary boldness he claimed that in his writings he was not merely reforming or correcting the political philosophy of the past, but founding political philosophy itself.  In this scenario, it can be argued that Leviathan, like Plato’s Republic, is a work of inauguration. It inaugurates the modern theory of the state.’ [2] Hobbes’s Leviathan is commonly described as one of the greatest masterpieces of political theory in English language and the first of the great social contract treatises. In this book according to Hobbes the state can only be conceived as overcoming something anterior to it; something that empirically can only be glimpsed here and there, but which it is the task of the political theorist to draw out and present in its unadulterated form.  In addition, the lineaments of the Hobbesian state of nature are well known. It is a ‘condition which is called war; and such a war, as is of every man, against every man.  The state of nature here becomes a generalized picture of a world in which men are guided solely by their own ideas of what is “good” and ‘evil” and refuse to make any acknowledgement of a “common good” or “common evil”.[3]

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The myth of ‘The Cave’

What people in this situation would take for truth would be nothing but the shadows of manufactured objects’

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This statement makes allusion to the allegory of the cave. In this case Plato makes reference to the cave we all live in. Is the world of shadows; the world of our own reality. It is to believe that this assertion makes mention to our own perception of this world is not very brightly. At a simply view we can tell that ‘real’ is described as experiences in which we can smell, touch, see and feel; everything that leads to our senses; in this scenario reality is everything we do when we are awake and conscious. The truth of what we believe real when we are trapped inside the cave is described as “dark as a tunnel without lights.” There is only a bright of light at the end, which allow us to see some shadows and some objects that we will say and believe they are real; even when they are not. Therefore, even when we are inside this darkness, how is possible to realize that we are deep in the shadows? I mean; there is a reality without these shadows we live on that we had never seen. The main issue that Plato put into consideration is that we don’t know until what level we have certainty or knowledge about “the world as it really is and not as we think it is”. It is believed that the main purpose in the allegory was to illustrate the perception of objects as we describe them as genuine when in reality they are not.

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